Tulsi has made important contribution to the field of science from ancient times as also to modern research due to its large number of medicinal properties. Tulsi has been described as of two types- vanya (wild) and gramya (grown in homes). It is a popular home remedy for many ailments such as wound, bronchitis, liver diseases, Catarrhal fever, otalgia, lumbago, hiccough, ophthalmic, gastric disorders, genitourinary disorders, skin diseases, various forms of poisoning and psychosomatic stress disorders. It has also aromatic, stomachic, carminative, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, alexiteric, vermifuge and febrifuge properties.
Tulsi grows wild in the tropics and warm regions. The plant is distributed and cultivated throughout India. It is an erect, much branched, fragrant and erected plant attaining a eight of about 30-60 cm when mature. Its aromatic leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic, oblong, obtuse or acute with entire or sub serrate or dentate margins, growing up to 5 cm long. The Tulsi flowers are small, purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls. The flowering part of the plant consists of a florescence of purple and red flowers. The fruits are small and the seeds are reddish-yellow in colour. The plant is bitter and acrid. It is also abundantly found in Malaysia, Australia, West Africa and some of the Arab countries. Ocimum sanctum (Linn) is the most prominent species of the genera. The leaves of the plant are considered to be very holy and often form a consistent part of the Hindu spiritual rituals (Tirtha or Prasada).
The leaves contain 0.7% volatile oil comprising about 71% eugenol and 20% methyl eugenol. The oil also contains carvacrol and sesquiterpine hydrocarbon caryophyllene. Fresh leaves and stem of OS extract yielded some phenolic compounds (antioxidants) such as cirsilineol, circimaritin, isothymusin, apigenin and rosameric acid, and appreciable quantities of eugenol8 . Two flavonoids, viz., orientin andvicenin from aqueous leaf extract of OS have been isolated3 . Ursolic acid, apigenin, luteolin, apigenin7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O glucuronide, orientin and molludistin have also been isolated from the leaf extract. Ocimum sanctum also contains a number of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes viz., bornyl acetate,-elemene, neral, - and-pinenes, camphene, campesterol, cholesterol, stigmasterol and – sitosterol
PROPERTIES AND USES:
1. Analgesic Activity Leaves/seeds Aqueous Suspension / Fixed oil
2. Anti ulcer Activity Seeds Fixed oil
3. Antiarthritic Activity Seeds Fixed oil
4. Antiasthmatic Activity Leaves Hydroalcholic Extract
5. Antibacterial Activity Leaves Aqueous / Chloroform/ Alcohol extract/ Fixed oil
6. Anticancer Activity Leaves Alcoholic extract
7. Anticataleptic Activity Leaves Alcoholic Extract.
8. Anticataract Activity Leaves Aqueous Extract
9. Anticoagulant Activity Fixed oil Fixed oil
10. Anticonvulsant Activity Stem/ Leaves Alcholic/ Chloroform extract
11. Antidiabetic Activity Whole Plant Aqueous decoction
12. Antiemetic Activity Leaves Leaf Extract
13. Antifertility activity Leaves Benzene extract
14. Antifungal Activity Leaves Essential oil
15. Anti-helminthic Activity Leaves Essential oil
16. Antihyperlipidemic Activity Seeds/Leaves Fixed oil, Essential oil
17. Antihypertensive Activity Seeds Fixed oil
18. Antiinflammatory Activity Whole Plant Alcholic extract/ fixed oil
19. Antioxidant Activity Whole plant Alcoholic extract
20. Antiplasmodial Activity Leaves Alcholic extracts
21. Antipyretic Activity Seeds fixed oil
22. Anti-spasmodicActivity Leaves Leaf infusion
23. Antistress Activity Whole Plant Alcholic extract
24. Antithyroidic Activity Leaves Leaf extract
25. Antitussive Activity Areal Parts Aqueous / Alcholic extract
26. Antianxiety Activity Leaves Alcholic extract
27. Antidepressant Activity Leaves Alcholic extract )
28. Cardioprotective Activity Whole Plant Fixed oil
29. Chemopreventive Activity Seeds Fixed oil
30. Demulcent/Stimulant/expectorant. Leaves Leaf juice
31. Eye Disease Leaves Leaf juice
32. Genoprotective Activity Leaves Hydroalcholic extract
33. Hepatoprotective Activity Leaves Hydroalcholic extract
34. Immunomodulatory Activity Seeds/ Whole Plant Seed oil /Aquous extract
35. Memory Enhancer Activity Whole Plant/ Leaves Aquous / Alcoholic Extract.
36. Larvicidal Activity Seeds Fixed oil
37. Neuroprotective Activity Leaves Alcholic extract
38. Piles Seeds Fixed Oil
39. Radio-protective Activity Leaves Alcholic extract
CNS disorders: 300 mg/day of an ethanolic leaf extract for 30 days was used in a study evaluating use of holy basil for enhancement of cognition. Dosages of 1,000 mg/day for 8 weeks or 1,200 mg/day for 6 weeks were used in studies evaluating the effects of holy basil extract on stress disorders.
Diabetes/Metabolic syndrome: One clinical trial used 2.5 g of the leaves as a dried powder mixed in 200 mL of water daily for 2 months to produce a hypoglycemic effect.
1.The seed oil of Ocimum sanctum was evaluated for chemopreventive activity against subcutaneously injected 20-methylcholanthrene induced-fibrosarcoma tumors in the thigh region of Swiss albino mice. Supplementation of maximal tolerated dose (100 μl/kg body weight) of the oil significantly reduced 20-methylcholanthrene induced tumor incidence and tumor volume. The enhanced survival rate and delay in tumor incidence was observed in seed oil supplemented mice. Liver enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) and lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde levels were significantly modulated with oil treatment as compared to untreated 20-methylcholanthrene injected mice. The results of this study suggested that the potential chemopreventive activity of the oil is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties. The chemopreventive efficacy of 100 μl/kg seed oil was comparable to that of 80 mg/kg of vitamin E.
2. The present study investigates the effect of Ocimum sanctum seed oil (OSSO) on some immunological parameters in both non-stressed and stressed animals. This study also made an attempt to explore the possible mechanism of immune modulatory activity. OSSO (3 ml/kg, ) produced a significant increase in anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody titre and a decrease in percentage histamine release from peritoneal mast cells of sensitized rats (humoral immune responses), and decrease in footpad thickness and percentage leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) (cell-mediated immune responses). Restraint stress (RS) produced a significant reduction in the anti-SRBC antibody titre, foot pad thickness and percentage LMI (% LMI). The effects of RS on humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses were effectively attenuated by pretreating the animals with OSSO. Co-administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg,), a benzodiazepine (BZD), with OSSO (1 ml/kg,) enhanced the effect of OSSO on RS-induced changes in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Further, flumazenil (5 mg/kg,), a central BZD receptor antagonist inhibited the immunomodulatory action of OSSO on RS-induced immune responsiveness. Thus, OSSO appears to modulate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responsiveness and these immunomodulatory effects may be mediated by GABAergic pathways
3. This study is a hospital based clinical set up trial for studying role of Ocimum sanctum in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Hamilton’s brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and thorough clinical investigations were used to screen the subjects. Thirty-five subjects (21 male and 14 female; average age 38.4 years) were medicated with the plant extract in a fixed dose regime (500 mg/capsule, twice daily, p.o. after meal). They were thoroughly investigated clinically and using standard questionnaires based on different psychological rating scale at baseline (day 0), mid-term (day 30) and final (day 60). The observations exhibited that, O. sanctum significantly (p<0.001)attenuated generalized anxiety disorders and also attenuated its correlated stress and depression. It further significantly (p<0.001) improved the willingness to adjustment and attention in human. Therefore, it may be concluded that O. sanctum may be useful in the treatment of GAD in human and may be a promising anxiolytic agent in near future.
4. Anti hyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. seed oil (OSSO) was investigated in rabbits in this study. Administration of OSSO (0.8 g/kg body weight/day) for four weeks, in cholesterol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) fed rabbits significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and LDL-+VLDL-cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol fed group. There was significant fall in atherogenic index in OSSO treated group. In addition, treatment with OSSO decreased lipid peroxidation and increased reduced glutathione content in blood. Antidiabetic effect of O. sanctum seed oil was evaluated in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Two weeks treatment of diabetic rabbits with OSSO (0.8 gm/kg/day) showed no significant hypoglycaemic effect. Results of the this study thus conclude that OSSO has hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects but it does not have antidiabetic effect.
SIDE- EFFECTS OF EXCESS CONSUMPTION:
PRECAUTION & WARNING:
Pregnancy: Holy basil is unsafe during pregnancy. In animals, large doses of holy basil taken by mouth appear to reduce the chance that a fertilized egg with attach to the uterus. It also seems to decrease the number of full-term pregnancies.
Diabetes: Holy basil might lower blood sugar levels. This might interfere with controlling blood sugar levels. People with type 2 diabetes may need to adjust dosing for insulin or antidiabetes drugs.
Hypothyroidism: People with hypothyroidism have low levels of thyroxine. Holy basil might lower thyroxine levels thus worsening hypothyroidism.
Surgery: Holy basil might slow blood clotting, so there is a concern that it could increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. One must stop using holy basil at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
INTERACTION WITH MEDICATION:
- Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with HOLY BASIL
Holy basil might slow blood clotting. Taking holy basil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Some medications that slow blood clotting include include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
- Pentobarbital interacts with HOLY BASIL
Pentobarbital causes drowsiness. There is some concern that taking holy basil seed oil with pentobarbital might cause too much drowsiness.
All Nisarga Herbs products are tested and have no side effects.
Tulasi Leaf Ghan (Ocimum sanctum) - 200 mg , Excipient - q.s.
Tulasi Leaf Ghan (Ocimum sanctum) - 200 mg
Tulsi is known as the holiest of herbs since ancient times. Tulsi has significant impact on worming the respiratory system and remove toxic build up in the lung. It promotes natural immunity, strengthens the digestive system, promotes healthy liver function and rejuvenates skin.